How to create foreign key in postgresql

How do you create a foreign key?

A FOREIGN KEY is a field (or collection of fields) in one table, that refers to the PRIMARY KEY in another table. The table with the foreign key is called the child table, and the table with the primary key is called the referenced or parent table.

Can foreign keys be null?

Short answer: Yes, it can be NULL or duplicate. I want to explain why a foreign key might need to be null or might need to be unique or not unique. First remember a Foreign key simply requires that the value in that field must exist first in a different table (the parent table). Null by definition is not a value.

Can foreign key be null Postgres?

ERROR: null value in column “indexing_table_id” violates not-null constraint DETAIL: Failing row contains (null). Sometimes you want a foreign keyed column to be nullable because it is not required (just as not every citizen in a citizens table went to a university, so a university_id column can be null).

Can a primary key be null?

A primary key defines the set of columns that uniquely identifies rows in a table. When you create a primary key constraint, none of the columns included in the primary key can have NULL constraints; that is, they must not permit NULL values.

Can a unique constraint be null?

A Unique Constraint can be created upon a column that can contain NULLs. However, at most, only a single row may ever contain a NULL in that column.

Can a unique key be null?

You can only have one primary key per table, but multiple unique keys. Similarly, a primary key column doesn’t accept null values, while unique key columns can contain one null value each. And finally, the primary key column has a unique clustered index while a unique key column has a unique non-clustered index.

Is a unique key?

A unique key is a set of one or more than one fields/columns of a table that uniquely identify a record in a database table. There is an automatically defined unique key constraint within a primary key constraint. There may be many unique key constraints for one table, but only one PRIMARY KEY constraint for one table.

Can a table have 2 primary keys?

A table can have only one primary key, which may consist of single or multiple fields. When multiple fields are used as a primary key, they are called a composite key. If a table has a primary key defined on any field(s), then you cannot have two records having the same value of that field(s).

Can Unique Key be a primary key?

A primary key must be unique. A unique key does not have to be the primary key – see candidate key. That is, there may be more than one combination of columns on a table that can uniquely identify a row – only one of these can be selected as the primary key. The others, though unique are candidate keys.

What is difference between index and primary key?


From an indexing perspective, defining a column or columns as a PRIMARY KEY is very similar to creating a UNIQUE index. The main difference is that PRIMARY KEYs cannot hold null values. However, like UNIQUE indexes, PRIMARY KEYs cannot hold duplicates.

Can a table have 3 primary KEYs?

It is possible for a table to have multiple candidate keys , which effectively behave similar to a primary key in that a candidate key is unique, NOT NULL , and is a singular representation of that table record.

What is unique key example?

Example of Creating Unique Key

Consider the same student table with attributes, 1) StudID, 2) Roll No, 3) First Name, 4) Last Name, and 5) Email. Stud ID can have a unique constraint where entries in Stud ID column can be unique because each student of a university must have a unique ID number.

Is unique not null is same as primary key?

PRIMARY KEY constraint differs from the UNIQUE constraint in that; you can create multiple UNIQUE constraints in a table, with the ability to define only one SQL PRIMARY KEY per each table. Another difference is that the UNIQUE constraint allows for one NULL value, but the PRIMARY KEY does not allow NULL values.

How do you create a unique key in SQL?

The UNIQUE constraint ensures that all values in a column are different. Both the UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints provide a guarantee for uniqueness for a column or set of columns. A PRIMARY KEY constraint automatically has a UNIQUE constraint.

What is unique constraint violated?

The ORA-00001 message is triggered when a unique constraint has been violated. Essentially the user causes the error when trying to execute an INSERT or UPDATE statement that has generated a duplicate value in a restricted field. The constraint name can be found by looking at the error message itself.

How do you solve unique constraint violation?

There are a few solutions to the “ORA-00001 unique constraint violated” error:
  1. Change your SQL so that the unique constraint is not violated.
  2. Change the constraint to allow for duplicate values.
  3. Drop the constraint from the column.
  4. Disable the unique constraint.

What does Parent Key Not Found mean?

ORA-02291 is typically accompanied with the message, “integrity constraint <constraint name> violated – parent key not found”. This means that you attempted to execute a reference to a certain table using a primary key. However, in the process of doing so, the columns that you specified failed to match the primary key.

What is primary key constraint?

The PRIMARY KEY constraint uniquely identifies each record in a table. Primary keys must contain UNIQUE values, and cannot contain NULL values. A table can have only ONE primary key; and in the table, this primary key can consist of single or multiple columns (fields).

What is the difference between primary key and unique constraints?

The difference between a UNIQUE constraint and a Primary Key is that per table you may only have one Primary Key but you may define more than one UNIQUE constraints. Primary Key constraints are not nullable. UNIQUE constraints may be nullable. A UNIQUE constraint will generate a unique NON-CLUSTERED INDEX.